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In the article under view the losses of leakage of water supply pipes and the ways to control it would be discussed. As the plumbing of present time is under ground and invisible therefore the leakage if occurred is also invisible and of course it is a harmful problem.
Losses of Leakage
The major loss of leakage of water supply at any invisible point is the damage to the building at specific point. If the leakage is not controlled well in time, its dangerous spread is there which cause the destruction of the specific portion of the building. Thus we have to spend a reasonable portion of our money for the reconstruction. Another loss of such leakage is the increment of water bill and electricity bill if electricity is involved in water storage.
First of all we should have plan for the underground wiring of the water supply before the building construction. The space for the pipes in every wall should be of the size into which we can see all the length of pipe when feel necessary. The outer edges of the space should be cemented or laminated properly so that if leakage occurs, it may not affect the walls.
Secondly we should use the water supply pipes, tees, elbows and other supporting appliances which are strongly recommended by the people in the light of their experience. If anybody has a plumbing system and there is not any problem for the years about the pipes and other supporting equipments, we should use the same material in our plumbing.
The third step is fitting of the pipes and supporting equipments by a qualified and experienced plumber. If any plumber is recommended for the purpose, we can visit one or more installation made by him, thus we can see the fitting of visible parts of plumbing e.g. taps, valves and showers fitting. If we select the plumber after this botheration, a satisfaction would be there.
During the installation process you should watch that the cutting and edging of pipes and further pipes fitting in tees, elbows and unions is accurate or otherwise. Because of your presence the plumber would do his job very perfectly and professionally. Before fitting the pipes should be checked by filling with water and giving full pressure from one side while the other side should be closed tightly.
Despite of eliminated, cemented outer parts of the space for pipes, good quality material and leaking less piping we should cover the pipes with a sizable and thick pipe of plastic which ends should be open and visible every time so that if any time leakage from pipes surface or from joints occurs the water so gathered may come out to inform us about the problem.
After the process of pipe fitting is completed, we should check the supporting tees, elbows and unions and also taps, valves and showers by running the supply of water from tanker with full pressure and if any leakage occurs that would be controlled by the plumber.
By Victoria Julee
Article Source: ezinearticles.com Continue reading
In part three of the five-part series discussing how consumerism factors into global environmental decline, we are looking at the connection between clean water availability and consumerism and how organic clothes fits into the whole equation. Only three percent of the world’s supply of water is fresh water, which is stored in aquifers, surface waters and the atmosphere, and since there is no reliable and economical method to convert large amounts of saline water to potable water, the competition for water is only going to rise.
Today, about 884 million people have inadequate access to safe drinking water and 2.5 billion people do not have adequate access to water for sanitation and waste disposal. And if predictions are correct and the world’s population increases by 3 billion by 2050, every citizen on Earth will be facing an enormous water crisis in the coming years. So is the decline of water availability really just about population? No, at least according the United Nations, which released a report in 2006 that said 1) the world does not have enough water and 2) the problem of insufficiency is “due to mismanagement, corruption, lack of appropriate institutions, bureaucratic inertia and a shortage of investment in both human capacity and physical infrastructure.”
With little in place to manage or control water usage, it really comes down to what we do as individuals that determines how soon we get ourselves into (or out of) a water crisis. So how much water do we consume? The average American uses about 180 gallons per day for personal use (washing, drinking, etc.), but this does not include water used for food production. If we factor in the water used for agriculture and cooling power plants, the number of gallons used per day per person skyrockets to 1,430 gallons. Just for food production, it takes about 108 gallons of water to produce a pound of wheat and 12,000 gallons of water to produce a pound of beef. In the United States, 87 percent of all the fresh water consumed in a year goes to agriculture and about 33 percent of the total grain produced in the world is fed to livestock.
While there are many clear indicators that our current levels of water consumption, compounded by our limited supply of fresh water, are serious issues themselves, another environmental concern is how we simply contaminate the good water we do have. Take, for instance, the clothing industry, and specifically the role cotton production has played in the industry’s value. Cotton production requires roughly one-third of a pound of chemical fertilizers and pesticides to product one pound of harvested cotton, and all these pesticides must end up somewhere. Most, in fact, end up in aquifers and water tables, and in the United States 14 million people are routinely drinking water contaminated with carcinogenic herbicides and 90 percent of municipal water treatment facilities lack the equipment to remove these chemicals. Something worth thinking about, is it not?
There is no resource in this world more important then water. Without good quality water, we cannot survive. By choosing to shop and live sustainably we can both help reduce water consumption and reduce water contamination. Choosing eco friendly clothing will certainly help but we must go further then that. We must look at all facets of our current lifestyles, including what we eat and how we live.
By Adrian Desbarats
Article Source: ezinearticles.com Continue reading
There are many types of natural disasters that can affect various parts of the world. Some of the worst ones include hurricanes, tornadoes, and earthquakes. What if you were affected by one of these disasters? Would you have the clean drinking water available that your family is going to need? In any type of disaster, water fast becomes the most needed commodity, so it’s important for you to plan for the possibility. Keep a good supply of clean drinking water in your home, and look for other sources you could use if the public water system would become out of commission. The list below will help you make a plan to provide for your water needs.
Putting Together a List of Sources of Clean Water
If you hear about an impending emergency, immediately take steps to stockpile as much clean drinking water as you can:
* Fill containers with ice water and place them in your refrigerator and freezer. You’ll be able to melt the ice later in order to have the drinking water you need.
* Purchase a good supply of bottled water and ice.
* Use bleach to clean your bathtub, and then fill it with water.
* Fill any large, clean receptacles that you have with water.
Finding Water Sources that aren’t so Obvious
Have you ever thought about other places in your home where you can find clean water? If not, now’s the time to acquaint yourself with some of them, because someday they could make a big difference in your family’s well-being.
* There is clean water in your toilet tank (not the water in the bowl!). If you’ve kept the tank clean and not added chemical cleansing agents to it, the water will be perfectly safe to drink.
* At any given time there is a quantity of water in your water pipes waiting be to run into your home. In an emergency situation you can drain this water out for use. Place a large container under the lowest-level faucet in your home. Go up and turn on the highest faucet which will release the air pressure within the pipes allowing the water to flow into your container. For homes with only one story, simply drain each faucet.
* You will be able to drain a large amount of water from your hot water heater. Shut off the power and allow the water to cool. Open the drain valve at the bottom of the tank and allow the water to drain into a large, clean container.
Since you might feel better if you sterilize some of the water you can retrieve from within the plumbing system in your home, you can always keep a supply of chemical purification tables with your emergency supplies for use if needed.
Outside Water Sources Which are Safe
It’s possible that during an emergency situation you may not be able to use the water sources within your home at all. Therefore, you need to know where you can find clean water outside of your home. Some common sources that you can use include:
* Water that is still in your garden hose.
* Rain water which you’ve allowed to accumulate in a clean container or on a piece of plastic.
* Melted snow.
Once again, you should take care that the water you get from these sources hasn’t been contaminated. If the water is questionable, you either need to do something to purify it or avoid it all together.
Guidelines for Careful Water Usage
Be careful when using water from outside water sources including streams, rivers, and lakes as well as other standing bodies of water. It may look clean, but you never know what kind of bacteria it might contain which could cause you to get very ill. In fact, there are contaminants in water that could even be fatal to you or a family member. If there’s any question at all about the safety of the water, don’t allow anyone to drink it until it’s been purified.
It’s important to know the tricks for finding clean drinking water in times of disaster. Your knowledge might end up being the difference between life and death. Some of the sources mentioned in this article, such as your toilet, may not sound particularly appetizing right now, but if you were ever parched with thirst and had no other safe water source available, you’d discover that yourself to be very glad you knew about them.
By Kristie Brown
Article Source: ezinearticles.com Continue reading
Water supply requirements for most washers include threaded faucets on both the hot and cold water lines. These faucets must be within 5 ft of the water inlet on the back of the washer. It is recommended that both the hot and cold water supply lines be provided with risers. These short lengths of capped pipe rise vertically from the supply line to provide a cushion of trapped air. This cushion of air absorbs the surge of water that occurs when the inlet valve closes suddenly. This absorptive action prevents “water hammer” and possible damage to the water inlet valve.
Most automatic washers need a so-called “water receptacle” to furnish a vacuum break for incoming water supply. The vacuum break is required by underwriters and many local plumbing codes. Water is directed to the receptacle from the mixing valve through a hose which is usually secured to the rear of the cabinet wrapper by clamps. The water from the hose passes through a nozzle in the receptacle top and is connected to the inlet flume hose at the bottom of the receptacle. In case of breakage the receptacle is usually replaced as a complete assembly rather than by individual parts.
A minimum dynamic pressure of 20 lb/in sq and a maximum dynamic pressure of 120 lb/in sq is recommended for the best operation. P pressure-reduction valve should be used in the washer supply line where inlet pressure entering the building exceeds 12 lb/in sq to prevent damage to the machine mixing valve. If pressures are below 20 lb/in sq, a long fill time and poor spray rinse action may be evident with the appliance. Problems of leaking water valves may also occur since water pressure is used to close the washer supply valves.
A convenient method of checking water pressure is with a water pressure gauge. Connect gauge to a Y fitting on the faucet with the gauge attached to one side of the Y and the washer fill hose to the other side. Read pressure while the washer is filling to obtain a stable dynamic reading.
For best washing results, the water heater should provide water to the washer at 140 to 160F. In some cycles as much as 30 gal of hot water is required per load. This is the entire storage capacity of a 30-gal hot water heater; therefore, it is imperative as an absolute minimum that a 30-gal, quick-recovery gas heater or a 50-gal, quick-recovery electrical heater be used.
Most water heaters have an adjustable thermostat located on the side of the heater or behind a cover plate. It provides a wide range of water temperature selection for the user. In order to obtain the recommended washer temperature of 140 to 160F, it may be necessary to turn up the thermostat at the water heater.
When adjusting hot water heater temperature, keep in mind the heat loss through the water lines. An unprotected water line can lose as much as 1F for every foot of pipe. As an example, a water heater set at 140F and located 30 ft from the washer will only supply 110F water temperature at the washer. To get 140F water to the washer, the heater would have to be Set to 170F.
Insulating the exposed water line between the water heater and the washer will prevent most of the temperature loss. Insulation is the best answer to a low-temperature problem. High water temperatures at the water tank may produce excessive temperatures elsewhere in the home. Excessive temperatures are to be avoided in the bathroom and kitchen areas where small children may be exposed to hot water.
Drainage systems: Washer water outlet facilities may be a laundry tube, standpipe, or a floor drain. The size of the tub required for disposal purposes will depend on the rated load capacity of the washer. For example, at a high water level setting, a 14-lb automatic washer will use about 18 gal in the washer cycle. The 18-lb model will use about 25 gal water at a high-water level setting in the washer cycle. It is obvious, then, that a 20-gal laundry tub would not hold the water from an 18-lb automatic washer. In fact, for some suds-return models, a laundry tub with double compartments is needed, each compartment having a capacity of 20 gal.
Regardless of the style or capacity of the tub or drain, it must be installed to provide proper drainage for the washer drain hoses. The drain hose must discharge at a minimum height of 30 to 34 in (depending on the model and style, Whirlpool, Kenmore, Maytag, etc.) and not, as a rule, exceeding 72 in. If the minimum height is less than 30 to 34 in, the water may possibly not be pumped out during the drain portion of the washer cycle.
Take care not to exceed the length of drain hoses provided with each washing machine. Excessive drain hose length only invites problems, the most common being hose “sag” which can lead to kinking or siphoning. Use one siphon kit for each 10 ft of hose. Support the hose with hangers, and exercise care to avoid a kink in the washer hose which may restrict draining.
By Rich Caldwell
Article Source: ezinearticles.com Continue reading